Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites) change when they are exposed to antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics). Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.

As a result, the medicines become ineffective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others.

Why is antimicrobial resistance a global concern?

New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases, resulting in prolonged illness, disability, and death.

Without effective antimicrobials for prevention and treatment of infections, medical procedures such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy, diabetes management and major surgery (for example, caesarean sections or hip replacements) become very high risk.

Antimicrobial resistance increases the cost of health care with lengthier stays in hospitals and more intensive care required.

Antimicrobial resistance is putting the gains of the Millennium Development Goals at risk and endangers achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

What accelerates the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance?

Antimicrobial resistance occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials is accelerating this process. In many places, antibiotics are overused and misused in people and animals, and often given without professional oversight. Examples of misuse include when they are taken by people with viral infections like colds and flu, and when they are given as growth promoters in animals and fish.

Antimicrobial resistant-microbes are found in people, animals, food, and the environment (in water, soil and air). They can spread between people and animals, and from person to person. Poor infection control, inadequate sanitary conditions and inappropriate food-handling encourage the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

Present situation

Resistance in bacteria

Antibiotic resistance is present in every country.

Patients with infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are at increased risk of worse clinical outcomes and death, and consume more health-care resources than patients infected with non-resistant strains of the same bacteria.

Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae – common intestinal bacteria that can cause life-threatening infections – to a last resort treatment (carbapenem antibiotics) has spread to all regions of the world. K. pneumoniae is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and infections in newborns and intensive-care unit patients. In some countries, because of resistance, carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half of people treated for K. pneumoniae infections.

Resistance in E. coli to one of the most widely used medicines for the treatment of urinary tract infections (fluoroquinolone antibiotics) is very widespread. There are countries in many parts of the world where this treatment is now ineffective in more than half of patients.

Treatment failure to the last resort of medicine for gonorrhoea (third generation cephalosporin antibiotics) has been confirmed in at least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).

WHO recently updated the treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea to address emerging resistance. The new WHO guidelines do not recommend quinolones (a class of antibiotic) for the treatment of gonorrhoea due to widespread high levels of resistance. In addition, treatment guidelines for chlamydial infections and syphilis were also updated.

Resistance to first-line drugs to treat infections caused by Staphlylococcus aureus—a common cause of severe infections in health facilities and the community—is widespread. People with MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are estimated to be 64% more likely to die than people with a non-resistant form of the infection.

Colistin is the last resort treatment for life-threatening infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae which are resistant to carbapenems. Resistance to colistin has recently been detected in several countries and regions, making infections caused by such bacteria untreatable.

Resistance in tuberculosis (TB)

WHO estimates that, in 2014, there were about 480 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), a form of tuberculosis that is resistant to the 2 most powerful anti-TB drugs. Only about a quarter of these (123 000 cases) were detected and reported. MDR-TB requires treatment courses that are much longer and less effective than those for non-resistant TB. Globally, only half of MDR-TB patients were successfully treated in 2014.

Among new TB cases in 2014, an estimated 3.3% were multidrug-resistant. The proportion is higher among people previously treated for TB, at 20%.

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), a form of tuberculosis that is resistant to at least 4 of the core anti-TB drugs, has been identified in 105 countries. An estimated 9.7% of people with MDR-TB have XDR-TB.

Resistance in malaria

As of July 2016, resistance to the first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria (artemisinin-based combination therapies, also known as ACTs) has been confirmed in 5 countries of the Greater Mekong subregion (Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam). In most places, patients with artemisinin-resistant infections recover fully after treatment, provided that they are treated with an ACT containing an effective partner drug. However, along the Cambodia-Thailand border, P. falciparum has become resistant to almost all available antimalarial medicines, making treatment more challenging and requiring close monitoring. There is a real risk that multidrug resistance will soon emerge in other parts of the subregion as well.The spread of resistant strains to other parts of the world could pose a major public health challenge and jeopardize important recent gains in malaria control.

A “WHO Strategy for Malaria Elimination in the Greater Mekong subregion (2015-2030)” was endorsed by all 5 countries, as well as China.

Resistance in HIV

In 2010, an estimated 7% of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in developing countries had drug-resistant HIV. In developed countries, the same figure was 10–20%. Some countries have recently reported levels at or above 15% amongst those starting HIV treatment, and up to 40% among people re-starting treatment. This requires urgent attention.

Increasing levels of resistance have important economic implications as second and third-line regimens are 3 times and 18 times more expensive, respectively, than first-line drugs.

Since September 2015, WHO has recommended that everyone living with HIV start on antiretroviral treatment . Greater use of ART is expected to further increase ART resistance in all regions of the world. To maximize the long-term effectiveness of first-line ART regimens, and to ensure that people are taking the most effective regimen, it is essential to continue monitoring resistance and to minimize its further emergence and spread. In consultation with countries, partners and stakeholders, WHO is currently developing a new “Global Action Plan for HIV Drug Resistance (2017-2021)“.

Resistance in influenza

Antiviral drugs are important for treatment of epidemic and pandemic influenza. So far, virtually all influenza A viruses circulating in humans were resistant to one category of antiviral drugs – M2 Inhibitors (amantadine and rimantadine). However, the frequency of resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir remains low (1-2%). Antiviral susceptibility is constantly monitored through the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System.

Need for coordinated action

Antimicrobial resistance is a complex problem that affects all of society and is driven by many interconnected factors. Single, isolated interventions have limited impact. Coordinated action is required to minimize the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

All countries need national action plans on AMR.

Greater innovation and investment are required in research and development of new antimicrobial medicines, vaccines, and diagnostic tools.

WHO’s response

WHO is providing technical assistance to help countries develop their national action plans, and strengthen their health and surveillance systems so that they can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and develop new responses to this global threat.

WHO is working closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in a ‘One Health’ approach to promote best practices to avoid the emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance, including optimal use of antibiotics in both humans and animals.

A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance was adopted by Member States at the Sixty-eighth World Health Assembly and supported by the governing bodies of FAO and OIE in May and June 2015. The goal of the global action plan is to ensure, for as long as possible, continuity of successful treatment and prevention of infectious diseases with effective and safe medicines that are quality-assured, used in a responsible way, and accessible to all who need them.

सूर्य नमस्कार योगासनों में सर्वश्रेष्ठ


सूर्य नमस्कार योगासनों में सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्रक्रिया है। यह अकेला अभ्यास ही साधक को सम्पूर्ण योग व्यायाम का लाभ पहुंचाने में समर्थ है। इसके अभ्यास से साधक का शरीर निरोग और स्वस्थ होकर तेजस्वी हो जाता है। ‘सूर्य नमस्कार’ स्त्री, पुरुष, बाल, युवा तथा वृद्धों के लिए भी उपयोगी बताया गया है। सूर्य नमस्कार का अभ्यास बारह स्थितियों में किया जाता है, जो निम्नलिखित है-

(1) दोनों हाथों को जोड़कर सीधे खड़े हों। नेत्र बंद करें। ध्यान ‘आज्ञा चक्र’ पर केंद्रित करके ‘सूर्य भगवान’ का आह्वान ‘ॐ मित्राय नमः’ मंत्र के द्वारा करें।

(2) श्वास भरते हुए दोनों हाथों को कानों से सटाते हुए ऊपर की ओर तानें तथा भुजाओं और गर्दन को पीछे की ओर झुकाएं। ध्यान को गर्दन के पीछे ‘विशुद्धि चक्र’ पर केन्द्रित करें।

(3) तीसरी स्थिति में श्वास को धीरे-धीरे बाहर निकालते हुए आगे की ओर झुकाएं। हाथ गर्दन के साथ, कानों से सटे हुए नीचे जाकर पैरों के दाएं-बाएं पृथ्वी का स्पर्श करें। घुटने सीधे रहें। माथा घुटनों का स्पर्श करता हुआ ध्यान नाभि के पीछे ‘मणिपूरक चक्र’ पर केन्द्रित करते हुए कुछ क्षण इसी स्थिति में रुकें। कमर एवं रीढ़ के दोष वाले साधक न करें।

(4) इसी स्थिति में श्वास को भरते हुए बाएं पैर को पीछे की ओर ले जाएं। छाती को खींचकर आगे की ओर तानें। गर्दन को अधिक पीछे की ओर झुकाएं। टांग तनी हुई सीधी पीछे की ओर खिंचाव और पैर का पंजा खड़ा हुआ। इस स्थिति में कुछ समय रुकें। ध्यान को ‘स्वाधिष्ठान’ अथवा ‘विशुद्धि चक्र’ पर ले जाएँ। मुखाकृति सामान्य रखें।

(5) श्वास को धीरे-धीरे बाहर निष्कासित करते हुए दाएं पैर को भी पीछे ले जाएं। दोनों पैरों की एड़ियां परस्पर मिली हुई हों। पीछे की ओर शरीर को खिंचाव दें और एड़ियों को पृथ्वी पर मिलाने का प्रयास करें। नितम्बों को अधिक से अधिक ऊपर उठाएं। गर्दन को नीचे झुकाकर ठोड़ी को कण्ठकूप में लगाएं। ध्यान ‘सहस्रार चक्र’ पर केन्द्रित करने का अभ्यास करें।

(6) श्वास भरते हुए शरीर को पृथ्वी के समानांतर, सीधा साष्टांग दण्डवत करें और पहले घुटने, छाती और माथा पृथ्वी पर लगा दें। नितम्बों को थोड़ा ऊपर उठा दें। श्वास छोड़ दें। ध्यान को ‘अनाहत चक्र’ पर टिका दें। श्वास की गति सामान्य करें।

सूर्यनमस्कार व श्वासोच्छवास

(7) इस स्थिति में धीरे-धीरे श्वास को भरते हुए छाती को आगे की ओर खींचते हुए हाथों को सीधे कर दें। गर्दन को पीछे की ओर ले जाएं। घुटने पृथ्वी का स्पर्श करते हुए तथा पैरों के पंजे खड़े रहें। मूलाधार को खींचकर वहीं ध्यान को टिका दें।

(8) श्वास को धीरे-धीरे बाहर निष्कासित करते हुए दाएं पैर को भी पीछे ले जाएं। दोनों पैरों की एड़ियां परस्पर मिली हुई हों। पीछे की ओर शरीर को खिंचाव दें और एड़ियों को पृथ्वी पर मिलाने का प्रयास करें। नितम्बों को अधिक से अधिक ऊपर उठाएं। गर्दन को नीचे झुकाकर ठोड़ी को कण्ठकूप में लगाएं। ध्यान ‘सहस्रार चक्र’ पर केन्द्रित करने का अभ्यास करें।

(9) इसी स्थिति में श्वास को भरते हुए बाएं पैर को पीछे की ओर ले जाएं। छाती को खींचकर आगे की ओर तानें। गर्दन को अधिक पीछे की ओर झुकाएं। टांग तनी हुई सीधी पीछे की ओर खिंचाव और पैर का पंजा खड़ा हुआ। इस स्थिति में कुछ समय रुकें। ध्यान को ‘स्वाधिष्ठान’ अथवा ‘विशुद्धि चक्र’ पर ले जाएँ। मुखाकृति सामान्य रखें।

(10) तीसरी स्थिति में श्वास को धीरे-धीरे बाहर निकालते हुए आगे की ओर झुकाएं। हाथ गर्दन के साथ, कानों से सटे हुए नीचे जाकर पैरों के दाएं-बाएं पृथ्वी का स्पर्श करें। घुटने सीधे रहें। माथा घुटनों का स्पर्श करता हुआ ध्यान नाभि के पीछे ‘मणिपूरक चक्र’ पर केन्द्रित करते हुए कुछ क्षण इसी स्थिति में रुकें। कमर एवं रीढ़ के दोष वाले साधक न करें।

(11) श्वास भरते हुए दोनों हाथों को कानों से सटाते हुए ऊपर की ओर तानें तथा भुजाओं और गर्दन को पीछे की ओर झुकाएं। ध्यान को गर्दन के पीछे ‘विशुद्धि चक्र’ पर केन्द्रित करें।

(12) यह स्थिति – पहली स्थिति की भाँति रहेगी।

सूर्य नमस्कार की उपरोक्त बारह स्थितियाँ हमारे शरीर को संपूर्ण अंगों की विकृतियों को दूर करके निरोग बना देती हैं। यह पूरी प्रक्रिया अत्यधिक लाभकारी है। इसके अभ्यासी के हाथों-पैरों के दर्द दूर होकर उनमें सबलता आ जाती है। गर्दन, फेफड़े तथा पसलियों की मांसपेशियां सशक्त हो जाती हैं, शरीर की फालतू चर्बी कम होकर शरीर हल्का-फुल्का हो जाता है।

सूर्य नमस्कार के द्वारा त्वचा रोग समाप्त हो जाते हैं अथवा इनके होने की संभावना समाप्त हो जाती है। इस अभ्यास से कब्ज आदि उदर रोग समाप्त हो जाते हैं और पाचनतंत्र की क्रियाशीलता में वृद्धि हो जाती है। इस अभ्यास के द्वारा हमारे शरीर की छोटी-बड़ी सभी नस-नाड़ियां क्रियाशील हो जाती हैं, इसलिए आलस्य, अतिनिद्रा आदि विकार दूर हो जाते हैं। सूर्य नमस्कार की तीसरी व पांचवीं स्थितियां सर्वाइकल एवं स्लिप डिस्क वाले रोगियों के लिए वर्जित हैं।


Reduces Cholesterol:

A soluble fiber found in oats called beta-glucan has been found to work effectively in lowering LDL or “bad” cholesterol level in blood without affecting the HDL or “good” cholesterol level. Oats is also a rich source of Tocotrienols that affect cholesterol synthesis and reduces cholesterol in blood. Research shows that eating a bowl of oatmeal each day reduces the general cholesterol level in blood by nearly 20%.

blood cells blocked by triglycerides

Controls Blood Pressure:

Although, high blood pressure itself has no symptoms, but it can lead to serious damage of the heart, arteries and blood vessels and lead to various other serious complications. But a daily serving of oats rich in soluble and half soluble fibers helps reduce hypertension, high blood pressure and also the intake of anti-hypertensive medicines.

blood pressure

Protects against Heart Disease:

Study shows that oatmeal contains a unique antioxidant named Avenanthramides that prevents the harmful free radicals from affecting the HDL levels in blood, thereby reducing the risk ofcoronary heart disease. In addition, the helpful phytochemicals called Lignans present in oats keep the heart healthy.

High Blood Pressure and Heart Disease

Protects against Cancer:

Although, oats doesn’t have the capacity to prevent cancer, but including it in your daily diet can significantly lower the risk of certain cancers. The antioxidants found in oats blocks the harmful toxins also known as free radicals from mingling with the DNA cells that can lead to cancer. The high fiber content of oats helps cut the risk of colorectal cancer and the lignans-enterolactone in particular protects against hormone related cancers such as, prostate cancer, breast cancer and ovarian cancer.


 Helps Weight Loss:

For those who are trying to lose some pounds, oats is a healthy addition to their diet. Oats being very low in calories (147/cup) does not add extra fat to the body and the high fiber content in oats absorbs water and provides a high level of satiety helping stay full for a longer time and keeping hunger at bay. Research shows that a daily consumption of oatmeal also helps prevent obesity and issues of excess weight gain  in children.

weight loss

Reduces Risk of Type 2 Diabetes:

Research shows that daily consumption of whole grains such as oats reduces the risk of diabetes by approximately 60%. It is also beneficial for those suffering with diabetes because oats help stabilize the level of glucose in blood. The beta-glucans present in oats slows down the digestion process and extends carbohydrate absorption, thereby controlling fluctuations in blood sugar level.

diabetes problems

Improves Defense of Immune System:

The soluble fibers called beta-glucan found in oats enhance the defense of immune system against bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses.  It speeds up immune system’s response to infections. It not only helps the immune cell neutrophils to locate the infected site more swiftly, but also helps eliminate the bacteria and heal the infection more quickly.


Reduces Asthma in Children:

Asthma is one of the most common diseases among children and more than 200 million people suffer from it around the world.  A Finnish study of 1293 children has shown that early introduction of whole grains such as oats in children’s diet significantly reduces the chances of developing asthma.

Asthma in Children

5 Tasty Oats Recipes:

So, we already know the health benefits of oats, but how to incorporate it in our daily diet in an interesting way so that we don’t get bored with it? Here I have listed 5 easy to make healthy Indian oats recipe that will surely cut out the blandness of same old oats and milk porridge.

Indian Style Frozen Banana and Apple Porridge:

Instead of cooking the oats with water, use milk for the extra dose of calcium. Add fresh fruits and nuts to the porridge to make it more delicious and mouth- watering. The fruits and nuts also act as an additional source of protein, fiber and essential fats.

Oats, banana & apple porridge


  • Oats- 1 Cup
  • Banana- 1 Sliced
  • Apple- ½ Cut in Cubes
  • Milk- 1 ½ Cup
  • Sugar- 1 Table Spoon
  • Cinnamon- ½ Table Spoon
  • Butter- 1 Table Spoon
  • Saffron- 3-4 Strands dipped in a Table Spoon of Water
  • Honey- 1 Table Spoon


Heat a pan, add butter to it and sauté the oats on low flame for 2 minutes, now add the milk and let it boil, then add sugar and cinnamon. Boil till oats become soft, add the saffron and refrigerate for 1 hour. Before serving, mix the bananas and apples and sprinkle a tablespoon of honey.

Lemon Oats:

Bring variation to the same old oats porridge with this spicy and healthy Indian oats recipe that’s not only easy to make but great to taste as well. The peanuts and fried grams add extra crunch to the dish. This dish contain the all essential spice-Turmeric that is highly beneficial for health.



  • Oats- ½ Cup
  • Lemon Juice- 1 ½ Table Spoon
  • Turmeric Power- 1/8 Table Spoon
  • Water- 1 Cup
  • Salt- To Taste

For Tempering:

  • Oil- 2 Table Spoon
  • Urad Daal (Black Grams)- ½ Table Spoon
  • Chana Daal (Bengal Grams)- ½ Table Spoon
  • Mustard Seeds- ½ Table Spoon
  • Peanuts- 1 Table Spoon
  • Green Chilly- 2 Slit
  • Curry Leaves- Few
  • Asafoetida (Hing)- A Pinch


Soak the Bengal Gram for 20 minutes. Heat a pan and dry roast the oats for a minute and keep aside. Now add oil to pan and add the tempering ingredients except the peanuts.  Now add the Bengal Gram and turmeric and fry well till it the gram turns light brown. Now add the peanuts and fry for a minute. Next add water and salt and bring it to boil. Now add the oats and spread evenly while stirring continuously. Let it cook for 2 ½ minutes. Now remove from flame sprinkle the lemon juice and serve hot.

Oats Upma:

Upma is a very popular and easy to make South Indian breakfast dish. It has fabulous taste and thefresh vegetables make up for the health quotient. But have you ever tried the healthy oats upma? It is very much like sooji upma or rice rava upma but loaded with a lot more healthy fibers.

oats upma


  • Oats- 1 Cup
  • Onion- 1 Finely Chopped
  • Mixed Vegetables (Carrots, Beans, Green Peas) – 1 Cup Cut in to Small Cubes
  • Turmeric- ½ Table Spoon
  • Salt- To Tate
  • Water- 1 Cup

For Tempering:

  • Oil- 2 Table Spoon
  • Mustard- 1 Table Spoon
  • Curry Leaves- Few
  • Green Chilly- 2 Slit
  • Urad Daal (Black Grams) – 1 Table Spoon
  • Channa Daal (Bengal Grams) – 1 Table Spoon


Dry roast the oats in a pan for few minutes and keep aside. Heat oil and add the tempering ingredients and fry well, now add the onions and fry till it turns golden. Now add the vegetables and fry a bit, add the oats, salt and turmeric and mix well. Next add the water and bring to a boil. Let the oats boil and turn soft, then dry the excess water and put off heat. Serve hot.

Oats Idli:

Include this extremely nutritious and fiber rich cereal in to your diet the Indian way with this simple oats idli recipe. This dish requires very little oil to be prepared and is especially beneficial for those who are trying to cut down on oily food.



  • Oats- 1 Cup
  • Wheat Rava- ½ Cup
  • Curd- ½ Cup
  • Mixed Vegetables of Your Choice- 1 Cup Finely Chopped
  • Water- 1 Cup
  • Salt- To Taste
  • Eno Fruit Salt- ½ Table Spoon
  • Coriander Leaves- 2 Table Spoon  Roughly Chopped

For Tempering:

  • Oil- 1 Table Spoon
  • Mustard- 1 Table Spoon
  • Urad Daal (Black Grams) – 1 Table Spoon
  • Channa Daal (Bengal Grams) – 1 Table Spoon
  • Curry Leaves- A Few
  • Green Chilly- 2 Slit


Dry roast the oats for 2-3 minutes, let it cool and roughly grind it in a blender and keep aside. Now heat oil in a pan, add the tempering ingredients and fry, add the vegetables and coriander leaves and fry. Now add the wheat rava and fry for another minute. Next transfer this mix to a mixing bowl and add the ground oats, salt, water and curd and whisk well to turn it in to a batter similar to an idli batter. Add the eno fruit salt right before making the idlis. Grease the idli plates and pour the batter in each plate and cook for 15-20 minutes. Serve hot with coconut chutney.

Oats Masala:

This is a super tasty and savory oats recipe that you can make when craving for something spicy.The rich flavor of the spices like cardamom and cinnamon gives it a mouthwatering aroma while the vegetables and oats supply the much needed nutrients.

Spicy Oatmeal Recipe


  • Oats- 1 Cup
  • Onion- 1 Finely Chopped
  • Green Chilly- 2 Chopped
  • Carrot- ½ Peeled and Chopped
  • Potato- 1 Peeled and Chopped
  • Capsicum- ½ Chopped
  • Toamto-1 Chopped
  • Coriander Leaves- 1Table Spoon Chopped
  • Curry Leaves- Few
  • Cinnamon Stick- 1
  • Whole Cardamom- 2
  • Ginger & Garlic Paste- 1 Table Spoon
  • Garam Masala Powder- 1 Table Spoon
  • Lemon juice- 1 Table Spoon
  • Oil- 1 Table Spoon


Dry roast the oats for 3 minutes and keep aside. Heat oil in a pan and add cardamom, cinnamon, curry leaves and green chilly. Let it splutter and then add onions and fry till onions turn golden. Now add ginger & garlic paste, sauté for 3-4 minutes and add potatoes, capsicum and carrots and fry for 5 minutes on medium flame, then lower it, cover and cook for 5 minutes. Now add tomatoes and fry for 3 minutes. Next add salt and garam masala followed by 2 ½ cup of water and bring to boil. Next add the oats and cook for 3-4 minutes on low flame. Remove from flame, add lemon juice and coriander from top and serve hot.

Prevents cardiovascular disease: “The antioxidants present in oats are beneficial for heart disease and the dietary fibers help lower the bad cholesterol (LDL) without affecting the good cholesterol (HDL)”, says Dr. Manoj K. Ahuja. Oats also contain plant lignans, especially enterolactone, which protect against heart disease. Thus, oats help reduce your cholesterol levels and keep your heart healthy. He adds, “It is a key food item that has proven to be good for the heart”.

2. Prevents constipation: Oats are a rich source of fiber, both soluble and insoluble, which helps in regulating bowel movements and hence prevents constipation.

3. Controls blood sugar levels: Since oats help stabilise blood sugar and reduce risk of type-2 diabetes, diabetics should consume oats regularly. The high fiber and complex carbohydrates slow down the conversion of this whole food to simple sugars, and beta-glucan delays the fall in blood sugar levels before meals and slows the rise after a meal.

4. Reduces cancer risk: Lignan, the same compound which helps prevent cardiovascular disease also “helps reduce chances of hormone-related cancers like breast, prostate and ovarian cancer”, according to the American Cancer Society. Therefore, eating oats is good for both men and women.

5. Reduces hypertension: If you suffer from high blood pressure, a daily dose of oats will help combat this problem and in turn, lower risk of hypertension.

6. Rich source of magnesium:  Oats are also a rich source of magnesium, which is key to enzyme function and energy production, and helps prevent heart attacks and strokes by relaxing blood vessels, aiding the heart muscle, and regulating blood pressure. The high levels of magnesium nourish the body’s proper use of glucose and insulin secretion.

7. Supports weight loss: Oats is a low calorie food which slows digestion and makes you feel full longer. Thus, reducing your cravings and helping you shed a few pounds. Cholecystokinin, a hunger-fighting hormone, is increased with the oatmeal compound beta-glucan.

8.  Enhances immune response to disease: The unique fiber in oatmeal called beta-gluten has been shown to help neutrophils travel to the site of an infection more quickly and it also enhances their ability to eliminate the bacteria they find there.

9. Protects skin: Oats have been used as a soothing agent to relieve itch and irritation while also providing an array of benefits for the skin. According to The American Academy of Dermatology, “Oatmeal is able to normalise the skin’s pH. It also helps moisturise and soften the skin.”

Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, and Ferromagnetic Materials

When a material is placed within a magnetic field, the magnetic forces of the material’s electrons will be affected. This effect is known as Faraday’s Law of Magnetic Induction. However, materials can react quite differently to the presence of an external magnetic field. This reaction is dependent on a number of factors, such as the atomic and molecular structure of the material, and the net magnetic field associated with the atoms. The magnetic moments associated with atoms have three origins. These are the electron motion, the change in motion caused by an external magnetic field, and the spin of the electrons.

In most atoms, electrons occur in pairs. Electrons in a pair spin in opposite directions. So, when electrons are paired together, their opposite spins cause their magnetic fields to cancel each other. Therefore, no net magnetic field exists. Alternately, materials with some unpaired electrons will have a net magnetic field and will react more to an external field. Most materials can be classified as diamagnetic, paramagnetic or ferromagnetic.


Diamagnetic materials have a weak, negative susceptibility to magnetic fields. Diamagnetic materials are slightly repelled by a magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed. In diamagnetic materials all the electron are paired so there is no permanent net magnetic moment per atom. Diamagnetic properties arise from the realignment of the electron paths under the influence of an external magnetic field. Most elements in the periodic table, including copper, silver, and gold, are diamagnetic.

Paramagnetic materials have a small, positive susceptibility to magnetic fields. These materials are slightly attracted by a magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed. Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of some unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials include magnesium, molybdenum, lithium, and tantalum.

Ferromagnetic materials have a large, positive susceptibility to an external magnetic field. They exhibit a strong attraction to magnetic fields and are able to retain their magnetic properties after the external field has been removed. Ferromagnetic materials have some unpaired electrons so their atoms have a net magnetic moment. They get their strong magnetic properties due to the presence of magnetic domains. In these domains, large numbers of atom’s moments (1012 to 1015) are aligned parallel so that the magnetic force within the domain is strong. When a ferromagnetic material is in the unmagnitized state, the domains are nearly randomly organized and the net magnetic field for the part as a whole is zero. When a magnetizing force is applied, the domains become aligned to produce a strong magnetic field within the part. Iron, nickel, and cobalt are examples of ferromagnetic materials. Components with these materials are commonly inspected using the magnetic particle method.

Master Tonic

This homemade tonic is made of natural, organic ingredients that destroy many bacteria when combined. It is also a potent antiviral and antifungal formula that fights candida. It increases circulation of both blood and lymph, fights inflammation and may actually knock out the common cold and flu — and it’s so easy to prepare. But, before you check out the recipe, take a closer look at what makes this tonic so potent.



Garlic is a strong antibiotic in itself. Allicin, one of the active compounds of freshly crushed garlic, has a variety of antimicrobial activities with a wide range of health benefits. But unlike pharmaceutical antibiotics that kill millions of friendly bacteria in the gut, garlic increases the level of healthy bacteria.

Research conducted by the department of biological chemistry at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel found that garlic is effective on a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli. It’s also effective on candida and even parasitic activity, including some major human intestinal parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.


Turmeric’s active compound curcumin lowers the levels of two enzymes in the body that cause inflammation, according to University of Maryland Medical Center. Because of its ability to reduce inflammation, it may help relieve osteoarthritis pain. Turmeric is also effective for helping treat ulcerative colitis, stomach ulcers, heart disease and even cancer.



Ginger has a variety of powerful therapeutic and preventive effects and has been used for thousands of years for the treatment of ailments ranging from colds to cancer. According to research published in The National Center for Biotechnology Information, ginger root has a high level of antioxidant activity. It also has anti-inflammatory properties and is an anti-nausea agent. Other benefits include cardiovascular and colon cancer-preventing benefits.


Onions are rich in sulfur-containing compounds that are responsible for their pungent odor and otherhealth-promoting benefits. Studies show that onions possess antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal properties. According to Whfoods, onions also provide protection for the heart and blood vessels and can help increase bone density, which may benefit women of menopausal age. In addition, onions provide important anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits, and have been shown to lower the risk of several cancers, even when consumed in only moderate amounts (meaning one to two times per week).

Red chilies

Chili peppers contain a substance called capsaicin, which give them their characteristic pungency. Capsaicin fights inflammation and offers natural pain relief for osteoarthritis. And the hotter the chili pepper, the more capsaicin it contains. The hottest varieties include habanero, Scotch bonnet peppers and jalapenos.

Notably, red chili peppers have been shown to reduce blood cholesterol, triglyceride levels and platelet aggregation, while increasing the body’s ability to dissolve fibrin, a substance that’s vital to the formation of blood clots. In fact, cultures that frequently eat hot peppers have a much lower rate of heart attack, stroke and pulmonary embolism. What also makes chili peppers a great addition to this tonic is their ability to clear congestion from the lungs and nose. They also boost immunity and help the body defend itself against invading pathogens.



Horseradish is a powerful and pungent root vegetable that contains a wide variety of health benefits, including its ability to aid weight loss, lower blood pressure, alleviate respiratory conditions, build strong bones, improve immune system health, stimulate healthy digestion and promote heart health. Whether it’s fighting the flu and respiratory disorders or combating tonsillitis and urinary tract infections, horseradish can help keep you healthy.

Raw honey

Raw honey is pure, unfiltered and unpasteurized honey made by bees from the nectar of flowers. Apart from providing energy and antioxidants, raw honey is a natural antibacterial with wound-healing effects. In addition, raw honey reacts with the body’s fluids to make hydrogen peroxide, creating an inhospitable environment for bacteria.

Apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is extremely useful as a food preservative because of its ability to inhibit bacteria — like E. coli — from growing in the food and spoiling it. But there are many more uses for ACV, including its many health benefits. ACV lowers blood sugar levels, helps fight diabetes, helps aid in weight loss, lowers cholesterol and reduces your risk of heart disease. Some studies show that it can kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

Natural Antibiotic Master Tonic Recipe



  • 1/4 cup of freshly chopped garlic
  • 1/4 cup of chopped white onion
  • 2 fresh habanero chili peppers
  • 1/4 cup of ginger, grated
  • 2 tsp of freshly grated horseradish
  • 1/4 cup of turmeric, grated (or 2 teaspoons of turmeric powder)
  • 3 tbsp raw honey
  • 3 cups of unfiltered, unpasteurized, organic apple cider vinegar


  • Mason jar with lid
  • Cheesecloth (or strainer)


1. Prepare ingredients and combine in a bowl, except for the apple cider vinegar.

2. Transfer prepared ingredients to a mason jar. The jar should be filled two-thirds full with ingredients.

3. Fill the jar with apple cider vinegar, leaving a one-inch gap from the top. Replace the lid and shake well.

4. Keep the jar in a cool, dry place for about two weeks, and remember to shake it well several times a day.

5. The longer the ingredients sit in the apple cider vinegar the more potent it will get. So, for maximum potency, infuse ingredients in apple cider vinegar for up to six weeks.

6. After two or more weeks, strain the liquid through a cheesecloth and pour the tonic into another jar or bottle.

7. Store the master tonic in the fridge and take one or two tablespoons a few times a day as needed. To ease the heat, eat an orange slice after each dose.


Image result for chemistry in everyday life

Chemistry is a branch of science, which deals with the study of the composition, structure, properties, reactions, and behavior of substances. Hence, chemistry is termed as the central science. It is the essence of our everyday lives and occurs in the food we eat, the air we breathe, the water we drink, everything is a result of chemical processes.

In fact, emotions like love and hatred are also driven by chemistry. For a better understanding of the chemistry that is virtually everywhere around us, we have provided day-to-day examples in two sections. Firstly, examples of chemistry within our body and secondly, examples of chemistry that exist outside our body or occur around us.
Chemistry Within Us
Chemistry plays a vital role in our survival, and life without chemicals can’t even be imagined. They participate in the primary functions of the body, control our emotions, oversee the metabolic processes and keep diseases at bay. The oxygen that we breathe, the essential nutrients that we require, the genetic make-up of our body – the DNA and RNA – are all made up of different elements and compounds. Let us take a look at few such instances that involve chemistry, and are an integral part of our existence.
Composition of the Human Body

Roughly 96% of our body mass is made up of just 4 elements:- Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen. The remaining 4% consists of around 60 elements that include sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc, and the list goes on.
The elements that are required in larger amounts are called macro-nutrients and the others that are needed in minute quantities, usually in parts per million or less, are called micro-nutrients. Chemically, the human body is made up of water and organic compounds- carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

The organic processes taking place in the human body are termed as metabolism, which involves huge number of chemical reactions. The enzymes that are secreted by different organs act as biocatalysts that speed up the rate of these reactions, whereas the hormones regulate their occurrence, time, and speed.
Our well-being, smooth functioning and normal health depends on these metabolic processes. The coordination and simultaneous occurrences of these life processes in an orderly manner is the reason we are fit, healthy, and alive.

Breathing is the exchange of gases between an organism and its environment. Respiration is a chemical process, which is a reaction between glucose or sugars with oxygen, that release energy. It is the process in which inhalation of oxygen from the air causes inflation of the lungs, and then deflation occurs by exhaling carbon dioxide into the environment.
The reaction that takes place during breathing is :-
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ➜ 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Composition of Water

Water is the elixir of life on Earth. Hydrogen – a highly-combustible gas and Oxygen – a gas without which combustion is impossible, form a covalent bond with each other to create the most effective fire extinguisher, which is water. The chemical formula of water is H2O.
Yes! We drink a chemical everyday. Water is important for all the metabolic processes that occur inside our body. As Leonardo da Vinci stated “Water is the driving force of all nature.”
Feeling Hungry

When you feel hungry the hormone Ghrelin is secreted by the stomach that triggers hunger. It stimulates the release of the growth hormone. It plays a role in the release of Insulin and protection of the cardiovascular organs. So, the next time your stomach growls grab a bite because if you fast or skip meals, more Ghrelin is produced thus increasing your craving for food.

Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and large quantities of potassium chloride(KCl) and sodium chloride(NaCl) that is secreted by the parietal cells lining the stomach.
This gastric acid helps convert pepsinogen to pepsin which is responsible for the denaturing of the proteins in the stomach. It also kills the micro-organisms in the food before they can make you sick. The HCl neutralizes the acid present in the foods you eat thereby maintaining your body’s acidic or alkaline levels to keep you healthy.
Tears and Crying

Sometimes, crying is a natural reflex. Studies have shown that emotional tears contain more manganese, an element that affects temperament and more prolactin. Prolactin is a hormone that regulates milk production. This elimination of manganese and prolactin is thought to ease out tension building up in the body and you feel energized and rejuvenated. So, the next time you feel low and need to vent your emotions, don’t hold back. Just cry! It will help you feel better.
Chemistry of LOVE

We fall in love or are attracted to someone and have a feeling of belonging due to an increase in the secretion of -Phenylethylamine (PEA, or the “love chemical”) and the hormones testosterone and estrogen which promote mating.
When we fall in love, our brain releases dopamine, norepinephrine and pheromones consistently, which evoke the pleasure center in the brain leading to side effects such as increased heart rate, insomnia, an intense feeling of excitement, elation, and focused attention.
Coffee and Sleep

Coffee keeps you awake due to the presence of caffeine in it. This caffeine increases dopamine levels in our bodies that stimulates the ‘pleasure areas’ in our brain making us feel good. It increases the adrenaline secretion in the body and speeds up activity in the brain that keeps us awake.
Body Odor

Perspiration is a way in which the body cools itself. Body odor mainly originates from the Apocrine glands, which are found in the armpits, ears, breasts, the genitals, and hair follicles that become active at the onset of puberty. The sweat that these glands release is slight yellow in color due to the presence of fatty acids and proteins in it. The bacteria that thrive on our skin break down the secretions of the Apocrine glands and create smelly odors.
These are some of the examples of chemistry inside our body. Let’s look at some examples of chemistry in day-to-day life that take place around us.
Chemistry Around Us
Chemical reactions influence the stuff around us, and there are numerous instances where chemicals and chemistry helps us live a better life. The cooking of food, the clothes we wear, fertilizers that we use for crops, cement used for building our houses, the power plants that generate electricity, and many other processes depend on chemistry. The human dependence on this natural science is increasing and to understand this, here are a few examples that highlight the importance of chemistry around us.

Photosynthesis involves energy transformation and is a chemical process wherein plants, algae, and some bacteria produce their own food. It is the synthesis of glucose using carbon dioxide and water in presence of sunlight trapped by chlorophyll present in the leaves. The reaction which occurs is depicted as:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy ➜ C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Photosynthesis is the reverse process of respiration. They both are inter-dependent. We get an uninterrupted supply of oxygen, and plants get the carbon dioxide they need. Thus, photosynthesis plays a significant role in our day-to-day life.
Color of Meat

There are two types of meat: red and white. Red meat contains a highly pigmented protein called myoglobin that stores oxygen in the muscle cells. More the myoglobin in the cells, the redder is the meat. However, as meat is heated, the proteins break down and shrink in size.
When the interior of the meat reaches 170° F, hemichrome (a tan colored compound) levels rise, and the myoglobin becomes metmyoglobin, which gives well-done meat its brown-gray shade. White meat contains glycogen, which has a translucent “glassy” quality when it is raw. When it’s cooked, the proteins recombine, or coagulate, and the meat becomes opaque and whitish.
Apples Turning Brown

Apples contain an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase (PPO), also known as tyrosinase. Cutting an apple exposes its cells to the atmospheric oxygen and oxidizes the phenolic compounds present in apples. This is called the enzymatic browning that turns a cut apple brown. In addition to apples, enzymatic browning is also evident in bananas, pears, avocados and even potatoes.
Crying and Onions

When you cut an onion you break the cells that form the layers in an onion, thus releasing an enzyme Alliinase that reacts with a sulfur-containing compound known as ‘prensco’, which is also released while cutting. This reaction results in the formation of 1-propenyl sulfenic acid.
1-propenyl sulfenic acid is further converted to Propanethiol S-oxide, a volatile sulfur compound, by the enzyme LF-synthase (meaning Lachrymatory Factor synthesizing enzyme). This gas, known as the Lachrymatory factor (crying factor), reacts with the water in our eyes to form sulfuric acid causing a burning sensation in your eyes and indicating the tear gland to secrete tears.
Stain Removers

Soap is formed by the reaction between an alkali and a fatty acid. This produces a molecule with one hydrophilic (water-loving) and one lipophilic (fat-loving) ends. The lipophilic ends stick to oil, grease, or dirt. These get engulfed in the soap and are washed away with a fresh stream of water, leaving a clean surface behind.
This is just a physical reaction that takes place. Soap and stain removers act as emulsifiers which allow oil and water to mix and so the oily mixtures and difficult stains on body and clothes can be removed after application of soap, stain removers, and water.
Ripening of Fruits

A simple hydrocarbon gas ethylene switches on the necessary genes that stimulate the secretion of the ripening enzymes which catalyze reactions to change the properties of the fruit. Ethylene channelizes the action of several other chemicals called hydrolase, amylase, kinase, and pectinase. These enzymes convert starch to sugar, alter the cell walls to make them softer, neutralize acids and cause the fruit to emit an aroma.

Fermentation is the conversion of complex substances to simpler ones under anaerobic conditions. The specific product from fermentation is driven by the type of micro-organisms acting on the substance in which the fermentation occurs. The products of fermentation are alcohols or acids and the release of carbon dioxide.
For example, wine produced from fruit juice is an alcohol as a result of fermentation by yeast, whereas beer is the result of yeast fermentation of grain. Antibiotics are obtained through fermentation by molds and some bacteria. Yogurt, cheese, and vinegar are products of bacterial fermentation. Leavened bread is obtained by yeast fermentation.

Sunscreens are a combination of organic and inorganic compounds. Inorganic chemicals, like titanium dioxide or zinc oxide, form a physical barrier that reflects or scatters UV waves. Organic components like octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) or oxybenzone absorb UV rays and release their energy as heat. This protects our skin from sunburns and detrimental effects like cancer.
Nail Paint Removers

Nail paint consists of three types of ingredients – organic solvents and drying agents, thickeners and hardening agents, and coloring agents. The remover is actually an organic solvent that is used as an ingredient in nail paint which may be acetone or ethyl acetate.
So when you apply the remover you are just bringing it back to its original state. The solvent molecules get in between the chains of polymers and separate them, making it easy to wipe it off with a ball of cotton.
Static Shocks

All materials are made up of electrical charges in the atoms of the material. There are equal quantities of electrons (negative charges) and protons (positive charges) that try to balance each other in the universe. Friction between two materials causes these charges to redistribute. The electrons from one atom are transferred to the other.
As we know, like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. Whenever you touch anything that is a good conductor of electricity, the transfer of the extra electrons that have accumulated takes place, and it gives you the static shock. For example, generally in winters, you get a shock when you get out of the car or when you touch the door knob or filing cabinet.
Your body itself is a huge chemical factory wherein one or the other chemical reaction takes place every moment. Most people detest chemistry because of long reactions and difficult chemical names that we see in our books. However, taking a practical approach to understanding this science, that we come across in our everyday life, will help you appreciate it even more.

Magnesium deficiency.

An abundant element on our planet, magnesium is also present in every organ in the human body. In fact, it’s considered a vital mineral for over 300 biochemical reactions that regulate our health and wellness. But unfortunately, many of us simply don’t get enough magnesium in our bodies to the point that we unknowingly suffer from a magnesium deficiency.

In a report by the World Health Organization, it was found that intake levels of magnesium are varied in people all over the world, and that less than 60 percent of adult men and women in the U.S. met the “Adequate Intake” (AI) values for magnesium. Frankly, we also aren’t getting as much in our diets thanks to water filtering and decreased minerals in the soil because of pesticide use and over-farming.

Therefore, while it’s also found in unfiltered drinking water, it’s key to consume magnesium-rich foods like dairy products, vegetables, grain, fruit and nuts. And another key way of getting more magnesium in your body? Magnesium oil.

Despite its name, magnesium oil is not actually an oil at all. The name originated because of the oily texture when magnesium chloride flakes are mixed with water. There are many forms of the oil available for purchase online that feature various dosages and added minerals, but it’s also very easy to make at home.

Long an old home remedy for a number of daily ailments, magnesium most notably has been credited with decreasing stress, sustaining a sense of well-being and improving sleep. Lately, studies have shown that magnesium can also boost performance levels, improve skin quality, and even help hypertension and diabetes.

Background of Magnesium Oil

Magnesium ions in the body are most commonly found in bones, but are also important elements in enzymes that help break down the food we eat into energy. Magnesium is a helper in so many different bodily processes, sometimes it is the key to unlocking the benefits in therapies and remedies that don’t seem to be working.

Magnesium has a role in the synthesis of essential molecules like DNA, RNA and proteins. In bones, cell membranes and chromosomes, magnesium makes up a large portion of the structural base. Magnesium also plays a large part in nutrient reactions and interactions, helping achieve absorption and balance in the body.

It’s important to note that magnesium is key to calcium absorption. These two work in a very special relationship with each other in the body, for if you have a calcium deficiency or imbalance, then you also may have a magnesium deficiency. Often, a magnesium deficiency can be a precursor to later calcium issues, because of this affect on calcium uptake! This relationship is why calcium food sources are the most effective when eaten with magnesium-rich foods.

Magnesium deficiency has a number of negative affects and has been linked to:

  • Hypertension and cardiovascular disease
  • Coronary Heart Disease
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Stroke
  • Osteoporosis
  • Decreased insulin sensitivity
  • Asthma
  • Migraines and headaches
  • Inflammation
  • Issues with the inner lining of blood vessels (endothelial dysfunction)
  • Impairment of exercise performance
  • Gastrointestinal issues

What Is Magnesium Oil?

Ancient people these so-called ancient minerals for topical and transdermal therapiesfor centuries, with little knowledge of the science behind the process. These included mineral baths, herbal compresses, mud packs, and steam and sweat lodges.

We know now how beneficial transdermal therapies can be in healing and wellness. In this case, transdermal application of magnesium helps to prevent side effects and can work more quickly and effectively.

It has been found that magnesium, despite being available in many dietary sources, is not best absorbed orally. Magnesium taken orally is affected by a number of elements in your gut, and can also act as a laxative, which reduces the amount of time the mineral can be absorbed in the body.

Injections of magnesium are commonly used for heart attacks and strokes, but the best way to regularly increase levels is using magnesium in a transdermal fashion. Some health experts have begun calling topical magnesium application, Transdermal Magnesium Therapy (TMT).

In a magnesium study in Spring 2010, patients using transdermal magnesium therapy saw increases in their cellular magnesium levels after 12 weeks of using magnesium sprays and soaks. The average increase over 12 weeks was 25.2 percent, which I consider very impressive.

The RDA (Recommended Daily Amount) of magnesium is about 300 milligrams daily, but the Office of Dietary Supplements recommends optimum levels are 400–420 milligrams for men and 310–320 milligrams for women daily. Our current diets are providing on average, less than 250 milligrams per day. Use of magnesium oil to supplement this deficiency is the easiest and most effective way.

7 Magnesium Oil Benefits

1. Sports performance and workout recovery

Athletes need adequate magnesium levels to perform at their best. Magnesium studieshave shown that exercise redistributes magnesium throughout the body and can negatively affect physical performance. Athletes like gymnasts and wrestlers that rely on weight control may be the most affected.

Magnesium-deficient individuals can find beneficial effects on their exercise performance when magnesium supplements are introduced. Magnesium oil is also a natural muscle relaxant and applications to sore muscles and joints can also provide pain and ache relief.

2. Migraine Relief

Migraine sufferers have lower levels of intracellular magnesium during acute migraine attacks. Low levels of magnesium affect a number of related receptors and neurotransmitters that cause migraine headaches. Studies have also shown that regular magnesium supplementation can reduce the frequency of migraines.

3. Skin care

In studies regarding magnesium oil uses, magnesium has been shown to break apart different fats and oils and, therefore, can help aid in reducing skin oiliness. Magnesium benefits also include its stress-relieving abilities, which can help to reduce stress-related skin irritations such as acne and rosacea.

4. Regulating diabetes

Poorly controlled diabetes results in a large excretion of glucose in urine, which in turn, depletes magnesium levels and has major implications in insulin resistance. Proper magnesium levels are incredibly important in diabetes patients, as insulin resistance can result in major problems in trying to control diabetes mellitus.

5. Regulating hypertension

Magnesium supplementation has been shown to offer slight decreases in blood pressure in patients suffering from hypertension. There are a number of additional factors that affect blood pressure in these individuals, but the studies concludedmagnesium supplementation lowers blood pressure.

6. Stress relief and general well-being

Magnesium has long been known for its ability to relieve stress, as it is typically wasted via urine in times of duress. It aids in helping a number of neurological and physiological processes when the body is under stress, so maintaining sufficient levels will help tobalance hormones naturally.

7. Sleep improvement

Magnesium works as a natural muscle relaxant, which is why many people swear by it to help with sleep issues. Magnesium helps you sleep because of its ability mineral to relax GABA receptors in the brain and nervous system, which helps promote a “slow down” you need in order to sleep.

Magnesium supplementation has also been shown to provide benefits, such as:

  • Care to prevent seizures for pregnant women with preeclampsia or eclampsia
  • Protection against brain damage in premature infants
  • Help with morning sickness in pregnant women
  • Hormone balancing
  • Reducing symptoms of PMS
  • Help prevent osteoporosis

How to Use Magnesium Oil

It’s recommended that once your start using magnesium oil that you continue to do so daily, applying more as you feel comfortable. It can take time to drastically increase magnesium levels, so it’s important to stick with regular applications. Keep track of your well-being and ailments prior to starting your regular applications to see how magnesium is affecting you and whether you need to change your dosage.

Spray: Spraying magnesium oil directly on the skin is the most common application of the mineral. It’s best to apply after a shower, when the skin is clear of lotions or other oils. After spraying, magnesium oil should be thoroughly rubbed in and left to absorb for about 30 minutes. Depending on your preference, you can shower or wipe down to eliminate any residue.

The first few times applying magnesium spray may result in some uncomfortable tingling. This sensation should dissipate the longer you use it.

Massage: Massage promotes blood flow and will ultimately maximize the absorption of magnesium oil. Magnesium oil is used by the body primarily in the area of application, so muscle cramps and soreness can be alleviated using massage and magnesium oil as treatment.

Sports Rub: Essential oils like wintergreen oil can be added to magnesium oil to create a more potent massage oil for sports massages.

Bath: Some users say direct application of magnesium oil can create a tingling or stinging sensation they do not enjoy, so soaking in magnesium chloride diluted in a hot bath can be a great alternative. Using essential oils to add a pleasing scent is also common.

Foot Soaks: Similar to a bath, soaking feet or legs in warm water with magnesium chloride can help provide benefits to specific areas.

Deodorant: Mineral salts have been used for many years as a natural odor blocker. Magnesium oil will work as a non-toxic deodorant too. Be sure not to apply magnesium oil to freshly-shaven skin, as it will cause irritation.

DIY Recipe to Make Your Own Magnesium Oil

To make your own magnesium oil at home, follow this recipe:


  • ½ cup magnesium chloride flakes
  • ½ cup filtered water


Bring water to a boil. Turn off heat and stir in the flakes until dissolved. When cool, transfer to a glass spray bottle.

Magnesium Oil Deodorant Recipe:

  • 4 ounces magnesium oil
  • 10–15 drops of your preferred essential oil


Mix ingredients and add to spray bottle. Spray on underarms as needed. Let dry.

Potential Magnesium Oil Side Effects

For certain people with existing maladies or sensitivities, they may experiencemagnesium oil side effects. For example, individuals with low blood pressure should use magnesium oil cautiously. Start with a small amount and short absorption time. Hypotension can be affected easily by salt intake, change in diet and medication, as well as supplements, so it is important to be cautious.

If you are taking an anti-anxiety medication, magnesium supplements may overcorrect your hyperactive nervous system. If it seems like you are becoming too relaxed when combining magnesium and anti-anxiety medication, it’s best to eliminate the magnesium.

Individuals with sensitive skin should test a very diluted form of magnesium oil on their skin before applying all over the body. This can be done by adding more water to the solution. The usual tingling users experience could be made worse and irritate skin for those who have existing skin sensitivity and issues.

Individuals with renal impairment and limited kidney function should also be cautious and consult their physician before starting supplementation of magnesium. Any prescription drugs should be cross-checked to ensure there is not an adverse reaction when taken with magnesium.


Stereoisomers are isomers that differ in spatial arrangement of atoms, rather than order of atomic connectivity. One of their most interesting type of isomer is the mirror-image stereoisomers, a non-superimposable set of two molecules that are mirror image of one another. The existence of these molecules are determined by concept known as chirality.



Organic compounds, molecules created around a chain of carbon atom (more commonly known as carbon backbone), play an essential role in the chemistry of life. These molecules derive their importance from the energy they carry, mainly in a form of potential energy between atomic molecules. Since such potential force can be widely affected due to changes in atomic placement, it is important to understand the concept of an isomer, a molecule sharing same atomic make up as another but differing in structural arrangements. This article will be devoted to a specific isomers called stereoisomers and its property of chirality (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Two enantiomers of a tetrahedral complex.

The concepts of steroisomerism and chirality command great deal of importance in modern organic chemistry, as these ideas helps to understand the physical and theoretical reasons behind the formation and structures of numerous organic molecules, the main reason behind the energy embedded in these essential chemicals. In contrast to more well-known constitutional isomerism, which develops isotopic compounds simply by different atomic connectivity, stereoisomerism generally maintains equal atomic connections and orders of building blocks as well as having same numbers of atoms and types of elements.

What, then, makes stereoisomers so unique? To answer this question, the learner must be able to think and imagine in not just two-dimensional images, but also three-dimensional space. This is due to the fact that stereoisomers are isomers because their atoms are different from others in terms of spatial arrangement.


Spatial Arrangement

First and foremost, one must understand the concept of spatial arrangement in order to understand stereoisomerism and chirality. Spatial arrangement of atoms concern how different atomic particles and molecules are situated about in the space around the organic compound, namely its carbon chain. In this sense, spatial arrangement of an organic molecule are different another if an atom is shifted in any three-dimensional direction by even one degree. This opens up a very broad possibility of different molecules, each with their unique placement of atoms in three-dimensional space .



Stereoisomers are, as mentioned above, contain different types of isomers within itself, each with distinct characteristics that further separate each other as different chemical entities having different properties. Type called entaniomer are the previously-mentioned mirror-image stereoisomers, and will be explained in detail in this article. Another type, diastereomer, has different properties and will be introduced afterwards.



This type of stereoisomer is the essential mirror-image, non-superimposable type of stereoisomer introduced in the beginning of the article. Figure 3 provides a perfect example; note that the gray plane in the middle demotes the mirror plane.


Figure 2: Comparison of Chiral and Achiral Molecules. (a) Bromochlorofluoromethane is a chiral molecule whose stereocenter is designated with an asterisk. Rotation of its mirror image does not generate the original structure. To superimpose the mirror images, bonds must be broken and reformed. (b) In contrast, dichlorofluoromethane and its mirror image can be rotated so they are superimposable.

Note that even if one were to flip over the left molecule over to the right, the atomic spatial arrangement will not be equal. This is equivalent to the left hand – right hand relationship, and is aptly referred to as ‘handedness’ in molecules. This can be somewhat counter-intuitive, so this article recommends the reader try the ‘hand’ example. Place both palm facing up, and hands next to each other. Now flip either side over to the other. One hand should be showing the back of the hand, while the other one is showing the palm. They are not same and non-superimposable.

This is where the concept of chirality comes in as one of the most essential and defining idea of stereoisomerism.



Chirality essentially means ‘mirror-image, non-superimposable molecules’, and to say that a molecule is chiral is to say that its mirror image (it must have one) is not the same as it self. Whether a molecule is chiral or achiral depends upon a certain set of overlapping conditions. Figure 4 shows an example of two molecules, chiral and achiral, respectively. Notice the distinct characteristic of the achiral molecule: it possesses two atoms of same element. In theory and reality, if one were to create a plane that runs through the other two atoms, they will be able to create what is known as bisecting plane: The images on either side of the plan is the same as the other (Figure 4).


Figure 4.jpg

Figure 4.


In this case, the molecule is considered ‘achiral’. In other words, to distinguish chiral molecule from an achiral molecule, one must search for the existence of the bisecting plane in a molecule. All chiral molecules are deprive of bisecting plane, whether simple or complex.

As a universal rule, no molecule with different surrounding atoms are achiral. Chirality is a simple but essential idea to support the concept of stereoisomerism, being used to explain one type of its kind. The chemical properties of the chiral molecule differs from its mirror image, and in this lies the significance of chilarity in relation to modern organic chemistry.


Compounds with Multiple Chiral Centers

We turn our attention next to molecules which have more than one stereocenter. We will start with a common four-carbon sugar called D-erythrose. 


A note on sugar nomenclature: biochemists use a special system to refer to the stereochemistry of sugar molecules, employing names of historical origin in addition to the designators ‘D‘ and ‘L‘.  You will learn about this system if you take a biochemistry class.  We will use the D/L designations here to refer to different sugars, but we won’t worry about learning the system.

As you can see, D-erythrose is a chiral molecule: C2 and C3 are stereocenters, both of which have the R configuration. In addition, you should make a model to convince yourself that it is impossible to find a plane of symmetry through the molecule, regardless of the conformation. Does D-erythrose have an enantiomer?  Of course it does – if it is a chiral molecule, it must.  The enantiomer of erythrose is its mirror image, and is named L-erythrose (once again, you should use models to convince yourself that these mirror images of erythrose are not superimposable).


Notice that both chiral centers in L-erythrose both have the S configuration.  In a pair of enantiomers, all of the chiral centers are of the opposite configuration.

What happens if we draw a stereoisomer of erythrose in which the configuration is S at C2 and R at C3?  This stereoisomer, which is a sugar called D-threose, is not a mirror image of erythrose. D-threose is a diastereomer of both D-erythrose and L-erythrose.


The definition of diastereomers is simple: if two molecules are stereoisomers (same molecular formula, same connectivity, different arrangement of atoms in space) but are notenantiomers, then they are diastereomers by default. In practical terms, this means that at least one – but not all – of the chiral centers are opposite in a pair of diastereomers.  By definition, two molecules that are diastereomers are not mirror images of each other.

L-threose, the enantiomer of D-threose, has the R configuration at C2 and the S configuration at C3.  L-threose is a diastereomer of both erythrose enantiomers.

In general, a structure with n stereocenters will have 2n different stereoisomers. (We are not considering, for the time being, the stereochemistry of double bonds – that will come later).   For example, let’s consider the glucose molecule in its open-chain form (recall that many sugar molecules can exist in either an open-chain or a cyclic form). There are two enantiomers of glucose, called D-glucose and L-glucose.  The D-enantiomer is the common sugar that our bodies use for energy. It has n = 4 stereocenters, so therefore there are 2n = 24 = 16 possible stereoisomers (including D-glucose itself). 


In L-glucose, all of the stereocenters are inverted relative to D-glucose. That  leaves 14 diastereomers of D-glucose: these are molecules in which at least one, but not all, of the stereocenters are inverted relative to D-glucose.  One of these 14 diastereomers, a sugar called D-galactose, is shown above: in D-galactose, one of four stereocenters is inverted relative to D-glucose.  Diastereomers which differ in only one stereocenter (out of two or more)  are called epimers. D-glucose and D-galactose can therefore be refered to as epimers as well as diastereomers.